In vitro anti-cancer efﬁcacy and phyto-chemical screening of solvent extracts of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth
Mukavi, Justus Wambua
Mayeku, Philip Wafula
Nyaga, Justin M.
Kituyi, Sarah N.
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Background and objectives: Kigelia africana is a medicinal plant growing naturally in many parts of Africa. In Kenya, a water concoction of the plant is used to treat breast and prostate cancers. Laboratory data on its anti-cancer activity and active principles is limited, hence no scientiﬁc rationale for its medicinal use. This study reports on in-vitro toxic activities of dichloromethane and methanol extracts of the plant against human breast cancer cells and phytochemical screening of the two extracts. Methodology: Plant extracts were obtained by sequential solvent extraction of dry plant material (stem bark) using analytical grade dichloromethane: methanol (1:1) and methanol (Sigma Aldrich). In-vitro anti-cancer activities of the extracts were determined using the suphorhodamine (SRB) assay against a human breast cancer cell line (HCC 1937). Preliminary Thin layer chromatography of plant extracts was done using POLYGRAM® SIL G/UV254 plates (Merck) to establish presence of different classes of secondary metabolites. Results: In-vitro cytotoxic activities of the two extracts were signiﬁcantly different (P ¼ 0.05). The methanol extract exhibited higher activity (IC50 ¼ 55.01 μg/ml). Phyto-chemical screening of the two extracts revealed the presence of terpenoids, phenols, steroids 26.02 μg/ml) compared to that of dichloromethane: methanol (1:1) (IC50 ¼ and ﬂavonoids. Conclusion: The high in-vitro anti-cancer activities of solvent extracts of Kigelia africana justify its use in traditional medicine to manage breast cancer. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts reveal similar proﬁles hence the differences in their anti-cancer activities can be attributed to quantitative variations of various classes of secondary metabolites.
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