Comparison of the phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Calotropis procera, Momordica charantia and Allium ascalonicum
Utomi Ozioma, Lilian
Ogunlowo Oladejo, Peter
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The emergence of new infectious diseases, resurgence of several infections that appeared to have been controlled and the increase in bacterial resistance has led to the need for studies directed towards the development of new antimicrobials. Considering the challenge of obtaining new molecules with antimicrobial properties from microorganisms, identifying antimicrobials from other natural sources is of great importance. The phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic leaf extracts of Calotropis procera, Momordica charantia and Allium ascalonicum was investigated in an attempt to evaluate their medicinal potential in the treatment of gastroenteritis, a major cause of death especially in children under the age of five in Nigeria. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of the active medicinal constituents analyzed. The extracts had varying degree of inhibitory effects on the isolates tested. Allium ascalonicum extract had the highest antimicrobial activity compared to Calotropis procera and Momordica charantia extracts. Gentamicin also had good inhibitory effects on the isolates used. Our study showed that the selected plant extracts had good antimicrobial effects on the pathogenic bacteria causing gastroenteritis with Allium ascalonicum extract showing the highest activity. These plants can be useful in treating infections caused by these bacteria and suggests further advance investigations.