Roles of doping ions in afterglow properties of blue CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphors
Wako, Ali Halake
Dejene, B. F.
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Eu2+ doped and Nd3+ co-doped calcium aluminate (CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+) phosphor was prepared by a urea-nitrate solution combustion method at furnace temperatures as low as 500 °C. The produced CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ powder was investigated in terms of phase composition, morphology and luminescence by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Photoluminescence (PL) techniques respectively. XRD analysis depicts a dominant monoclinic phase that indicates no change in the crystalline structure of the phosphor with varying concentration of Eu2+ and Nd3+. SEM results show agglomerates with non-uniform shapes and sizes with a number of irregular network structures having lots of voids and pores. The Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and (FTIR) spectra confirm the expected chemical components of the phosphor. PL measurements indicated one broadband excitation spectra from 200 to 300 nm centered around 240 nm corresponding to the crystal field splitting of the Eu2+ d-orbital and an emission spectrum in the blue region with a maximum on 440 nm. This is a strong indication that there was dominantly one luminescence center, Eu2+ which represents emission from transitions between the 4f7 ground state and the 4f6–5d1 excited state configuration. High concentrations of Eu2+ and Nd3+ generally reduce both intensity and lifetime of the phosphor powders. The optimized content of Eu2+ is 1 mol% and for Nd3+ is 1 mol% for the obtained phosphors with excellent optical properties. The phosphor also emits visible light at around 587 and 616 nm. Such emissions can be ascribed to the 5D0–7F1 and 5D0–7F2 intrinsic transition of Eu3+ respectively. The decay characteristics exhibit a significant rise in initial intensity with increasing Eu2+ doping concentration while the decay time increased with Nd3+ co-doping. The observed afterglow can be ascribed to the generation of suitable traps due to the presence of the Nd3+ ions.