Contributions of Selected Microsystems to antisocial behaviours among Adolescents in Secondary Schools in Manyatta Sub- County, Embu County, Kenya
Antisocial behaviour is a major challenge in secondary schools in Kenya. It is linked with delinquent behaviour such as truancy, drug abuse and bullying. These behaviours are related to negative interactions with parents, teachers and peers. The individual lives in constant conflict which results in ultimate long time consequences like failing examinations, frustrations and failure in life. The aim of this study was to investigate the contributions of microsystems to antisocial behaviours among adolescents in secondary schools in Manyatta, Embu County, Kenya. The objectives of the study were to establish the extent of truancy, bullying and drug abuse among adolescents in secondary schools and to investigate the contributions of family, class room and peer group factors on antisocial behaviours. The study was grounded on Erikson‟s Psychosocial theory and Bronfenbrenner‟s Ecological theory. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The target population was 11,329 students from 46 public schools which are either county boarding schools or coeducation day schools in Manyatta, Embu County. Stratified sampling was used to obtain two girls boarding schools, two boys boarding schools and four co-education day schools. The 2,834 Form Two students were purposively sampled because this group was rated the ring leader in Eastern region. The sample of 320 students was obtained through random sampling while eight deputy principals were selected from sampled schools. A pilot study was conducted on 30 form two students selected from the two categories of secondary schools in Embu County.This was to improve the instruments‟ reliability and validity. The data was collected using student‟s questionnaire, deputy principals‟ questionnare, records analysis and an observation schedule in all the sampled schools. Both descriptive and inferential statistical procedures were used to analyse the data. Chi-square tests were used to determine the significance of association between the independent and dependent variables. The findings revealed that all the classroom factors: academic performance, individuals responsible for discipline, common disciplinary measures, rating of disciplinary measures and counselling services, were significantly associated with antisocial behaviours.The findings showed that among the family factors; parents‟ supervision, students‟opinion on parenting style, parents‟ employment and sharing with parents were significantly associated with antisocial behaviours, while not living with biological parents was not significantly associated with antisocial behaviours. The study further found out that among the peer group factors; students‟ opinion on an individual student and identification based on informal group were significantly associated with antisocial behaviours, while participation in informal group, sharing problems with peers and characteristic of friends‟ behaviour were not significantly associated with antisocial behaviours. The study found out that truancy was the most common, followed by bullying and drug abuse respectively. The study recommended that all children be given equal supervision as that given to the first born children. The study also recommended peer counselling training to be offered to all students.The counselling services need to be activitated and managed by trained teacher counsellors. The disciplinary measures should be modified in consultation with the students and teachers. Parents and teachers should aim at developing a holistic individual who is socially, intellectually and psychologically fit in the society. The concerted effort of the individual and the stakeholders are important for successful adolescents‟ transition.